There are good reasons to believe that humans have some ethical obligations with respect to the environment. This claim is true even if we believe that our only direct obligations are toward other human beings. For example, biodiversity plays an important role in the health of our food and water supply and in the development of modern medicine. So, doing right by the environment and promoting biodiversity, in addition to being good for nonhuman organisms, can be seen as a means to the end of meet our obligation to promote human flourishing. Other obligations that we might have toward the environment include reducing consumption of energy and the use of other products that use large amounts of natural resources, working toward minimizing the suffering of animals, and reducing carbon dioxide emissions to curb the effects of climate change.